Participants transitioned from their initial state - selling restorative care - through an intermediary stage - learning by doing and educating patients about the importance of preventive care - and finally to a stage where they were offering patients more than just restorative care. Examples of Grounded Theory : A Reader: Glaser, Barney G.: Amazon.nl Selecteer uw cookievoorkeuren We gebruiken cookies en vergelijkbare tools om uw winkelervaring te verbeteren, onze services aan te bieden, te begrijpen hoe klanten onze services gebruiken zodat we verbeteringen kunnen aanbrengen, en om advertenties weer te geven. (2006), Encyclopedia of Statistical Sciences, Wiley. Aust Dent J. We analysed the interview transcripts as soon as possible after each round of interviews in each dental practice sampled as shown on Figure 1. From those who agreed, we used the quantitative data from the MPP to select an initial sample. PubMed Central  BMC Medical Research Methodology Soc Sci Med. Article  Transferring evidence-based preventive protocols into these dental practices entailed a slow process of adapting the evidence to the existing practices logistics. As such, grounded theory can be described as an inductive method, or a form of inductive reasoning. 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2005.00179.x. The application of grounded theory was the conduit to theory development in this study. Sturges JE, Hanrahan KJ: Comparing telephone and face-to-face qualitative interviewing: a research note. We used grounded theory methodology to investigate social processes in private dental practices in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Successful adaptation was contingent upon whether (1) the dentist-in-charge brought the whole dental team together - including other dentists - and got everyone interested and actively participating during preventive activities; (2) whether the physical environment of the practice was re-organised around preventive activities, (3) whether the dental team was able to devise new and efficient routines to accommodate preventive activities, and (4) whether the fee schedule was amended to cover the delivery of preventive services, which hitherto was considered as "unproductive time". 2004, 31: 749-757. Coding should be line by line, open coding: read through data several times, creating summaries for the data using preliminary labels. Moreover, researchers need to be familiar with GTM, in all its major forms, in order to be able to understand how they might adapt it in use or revise it into new forms and variations.' 10.1177/1468794107078517. Bodies overseeing human research ethics, such as the Canadian Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans, and the Australian National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research [6, 7], have included chapters or sections on the ethics of qualitative research. To gain a more practical idea about the application of grounded theory, we suggest looking at Vollstedt for an example of the application of grounded theory methods in an international comparative study in mathematics education carried out in Germany and Hong Kong. By comparing codes against codes and data against data, we distinguished the category of "seeking out evidence" from other focused codes, such as "gathering and comparing peers' evidence to reach a conclusion", and we understood the relationships between them. This allowed the process of theoretical sampling to occur. Grounded theory is often regarded as a special type of qualitative research methodology (others include ethnography and case study methodologies). Wasserman JA, Clair JM, Wilson KL: Problematics of grounded theory: innovations for developing an increasingly rigorous qualitative method. In 2007, Bryant and Charmaz argued: 'Use of GTM, at least as much as any other research method, only develops with experience. using grounded theory, a researcher can stay close to the data at all times in the analysis. In this example case, the first phase involves data collection through observation and interview. Participants in the previous MPP study provided our population [27]. The protocols focused on (1) primary prevention of new tooth decay (tooth brushing with high concentration fluoride toothpaste and dietary advice) and (2) intensive secondary prevention through professional treatment to arrest tooth decay progress (application of fluoride varnish, supervised monitoring of dental plaque control and clinical outcomes)[38]. Telephone interviews were of comparable length, content and quality to face to face interviews, as reported elsewhere in the literature [40]. 10.1177/1049732305285972. ): Handbook of Grounded Theory. See this blog post for some great examples of these coding types. Sociologists Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss popularized this method in the 1960s, which they and many others considered an antidote to the popularity of deductive theory, which is often speculative in nature, seemingly disconnected from the realities of social life, and may, in fact, go … Caries Res. Below are the links to the authors’ original submitted files for images. Through our analysis, we concluded that what was required was 'adapting to' those protocols in practice. Interviewing participants with open-ended questions. We also learned that new technologies - in particular digital x-rays and intra-oral cameras - had been unexpectedly important to the process of implementing the protocols. In writing Basics of Grounded theory Analysis (Sociology Press, 1992), it became obvious to me that what was needed by the myriad of Grounded Theory readers and users throughout die world was a book of examples of grounded theory papers and chapters. Examples of Grounded Theory : A Reader Microfilm Book The Fast Free Shipping. Our theory, which is expressed as a set of concepts that are related to one another in a cohesive way, now accounts adequately for all the data we have collected. After each interview, the interviewer/researcher (AS) wrote a case-based memo reflecting on what she learned from that interview. Article  We indicated that we would make future applications to modify our protocols. Initial ethics approval was obtained from the Human Research Ethics Committee at the University of Sydney. 2004, 4 (1): 107-18. 1. For example, classic grounded theory researchers are simultaneous inductive-deductive thinkers. Didactic situations in the virtual scenario: a view of mathematics education from the grounded theory . Grounded theory involves the collection and analysis of data. This seemed to be a potentially important explanation for non-implementation of the protocols. It is not adescriptive study of a descriptive problem’’ (Glaser, 2010).‘‘Most grounded theorists believe they are theorizing abouthow the world *is* rather than how respondents see it’’(Steve Borgatti). 2005, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 1996, 25: 5-16. 1998, website accessed on 13 September 2011, [http://www.pre.ethics.gc.ca/english/policystatement/introduction.cfm], The Australian National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research: website accessed on 10 June 2011, [http://www.nhmrc.gov.au/publications/synopses/e35syn.htm], Bryant A, Charmaz K, (eds. In initial coding, the researcher generates as many ideas as possible inductively from early data. 1. Hence the failure of all those attempts to provide clear, mechanistic rules for GTM: there is no 'GTM for dummies'. Google Scholar. 2004, 2 (S1): 259-264. 2002, 47: 138-141. In our experience, medical researchers are often concerned about the ethics oversight process for such a flexible, unpredictable study design. We submitted Ethics Modification applications for changes in our question routes, and had no difficulty with approval. In our application, we explained grounded theory procedures, in particular the fact that they evolve. These researchers deal with hypothesising and detail analysis at one and the same time. Carter SM: Enacting Internal Coherence as a Path to Quality in Qualitative Inquiry. In theoretical coding, the researcher refines the final categories in their theory and relates them to one another. SMC made substantial contribution during data collection, analysis and data interpretation. Patients were asked questions about what kind of services dentists should provide and what patients valued when coming to the dentist. After our initial data collection and analysis, we used theoretical sampling (see Table 1) to determine who to sample next and what questions to ask during interviews. 1986, 14: 265-270. DentoMaxilloFac Rad. Then, in Dental Practice 2 we learned more about the barriers dentists and practice staff encountered during the process of implementing the MPP protocols. Types one and two are the work of the original authors: Barney Glaser's 'Classic Grounded Theory' [13] and Anselm Strauss and Juliet Corbin's 'Basics of Qualitative Research' [14]. 10.1111/j.1600-0528.1985.tb00414.x. We explain how these steps were consistent with grounded theory methodology, and show how they related to one another. Free shipping . This was expressed in both diagrams and memos, was built around a core set of focused codes, and illustrated relationships between them. Thus, novice researchers strive to understand the discourse and the practical application of grounded theory concepts and processes. Axial coding is used to create conceptual families from the summaries, followed by selective coding which turns the families into a formal framework with a variable that includes all of the collected data. After familiarizing with data, an initial list of ideas is generated. Then, we selected the practice in which the most dramatic results had been achieved in the MPP study (Dental Practice 1). This type of concurrent data analysis and data collection is often referred to as constant comparative analysis and theoretical sampling. We thank dentists, dental practice staff and patients for their invaluable contributions to the study. PubMed  All authors read and approved the final manuscript. We wanted to compare dentists' perspectives with the perspectives of the patients themselves. Although there are “probably as many versions of grounded theory as there were grounded theorists” (Dey, 1999), all of the versions have the following aspects in common (Charmaz, 2006): 1. Transcription of verbal data retrieved through interviews, TV programmes are then performed in order to conduct thematic analysis. PubMed  K. Charmaz, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. We know that preventive techniques can arrest early tooth decay and thus reduce the need for fillings [28–32]. http://www.iiqm.ualberta.ca/en/Conferences/QualitativeHealthResearch.aspx, http://www.pre.ethics.gc.ca/english/policystatement/introduction.cfm, http://www.nhmrc.gov.au/publications/synopses/e35syn.htm, http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2288/11/128/prepub, Additional file 1: Initial interview schedule for dentists and dental practice staff. After a few interviews, the interviewer/researcher also began making and recording comparisons among these memos. Sbaraini, A., Carter, S.M., Evans, R.W. The MPP protocols used in the RCT guided dentists to systematically apply preventive techniques to prevent new tooth decay and to arrest early stages of tooth decay in their patients, therefore reducing the need for drilling and filling. Qual Res. The fifth, emerging variant is 'Dimensional Analysis' [17] which is being developed from the work of Leonard Schaztman, who was a colleague of Strauss and Glaser in the 1960s and 1970s. 10.1111/j.1600-0528.1983.tb01883.x. Charmaz's method, like Glaser's method [13], captures actions or processes by using gerunds as codes (verbs ending in 'ing'); Charmaz also emphasises coding quickly, and keeping the codes as similar to the data as possible. ; which made it possible to write this explanatory paper qualitative approach that let 's theory from! Underwent a slow process of incorporating prevention into private general dental practice 2 of preventive techniques can arrest early decay... Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the literature writers speak of adopting, implementing translating. Collection progresses questions for dentists and dental practice practices entailed a slow of! Ethics oversight process for such a flexible, unpredictable study design was by! 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