The ability to hold a piece of history untouched by time has resulted in a number of scientific discoveries and advances such as feathers on a non-avian dinosaur dated 99 million years ago and the biosynthesis of gene clusters for novel antibiotics. As with Bentham’s formulation, utilitarianism in business ethics is primarily concerned with outcomes rather than processes. One suggested solution to the concussion problem is to outlaw helmets on the theory that players will be forced to reduce headfirst collisions and other trauma-causing actions. If subconcussive blows are the cause of C.T.E., how much impact is too much? Are you aware of comparable situations around the world where individuals and corporations that wish to be moral buyers should be similarly wary, knowing that their purchase price might aid the seller’s bad acts? Utilitarian and Deontological Philosophy in Business It should be stated that the business ethics can be viewed in two different dimensions, namely the utilitarian and deontological. And the airline benefits, too. Utilitarianism (pronounced yoo-TILL-ih-TARE-ee-en-ism) is one of the main schools of thought in modern ethics (also known as moral philosophy). 3. ; The Utilitarian asks a very important question: "How will my actions affect others? Amber also plays an invaluable role in research. Do these choices remind you of the COVID-19 pandemic when governments, in deciding whether to shut down society and later when to reopen it, had to weigh lives vs. livelihoods?  Munro Cullum, Is Football Bad for the Brain? The term may also refer to pleasure or satisfaction that people derive from being somewhere. A Defense of a utilitarian approach to business ethics, written for Business Ethics: A Philosophical Approach Edited by Werhane and Donaldson. Amber is a resin material that is formed from fossilized conifer tree sap during years of constant pressure and heat. A labor union is an organization that represents the collective interests of workers in negotiations with employers. Five million cribs had been sold. Discuss your reasoning. How is justice accommodated? However, many such studies were funded or carried out by the NFL, owners of NFL franchises, universities that earn millions of dollars from football, and other interested parties. Our society allows people to voluntarily choose to undertake many risky professions, including coal miners, fire jumpers, soldiers, underwater oil rig welders, and others. Relatedly, should fans of the game be ashamed of themselves? Deontological? However, the science in this area is truly not settled. Today, having a formalized code of business ethics is more important than ever. 1. Utilitarianism also cannot predict with certainty whether the consequences of our actions will be good or bad—the results of our actions happen in the future. Which approach do you find more persuasive, and why? Copyright © 2020 Ethics Unwrapped - McCombs School of Business – The University of Texas at Austin, 8 short videos present the 7 principles of values-driven leadership from, https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2019/08/amber-fossil-supply-chain-has-dark-human-cost/594601/, https://www.cell.com/current-biology/pdf/S0960-9822(19)31097-8.pdf, https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2019/07/fossil-bird-in-amber-has-unusually-long-toes/, https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg24232280-600-blood-amber-the-exquisite-trove-of-fossils-fuelling-war-in-myanmar/, https://dc.law.utah.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1121&context=ulr, https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/05/fossils-burmese-amber-offer-exquisite-view-dinosaur-times-and-ethical-minefield, https://consult-myanmar.com/2018/07/11/myanmars-new-gold-mine-is-dinosaur-amber/, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982216311939?via%3Dihub, https://business.financialpost.com/commodities/mining/dodging-rumour-and-insurgency-the-hunt-for-burmese-amber-goes-to-the-heart-of-myanmars-turbulent-north, https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg24232283-300-it-is-time-to-bring-global-attention-to-the-trade-in-burmese-amber/, https://www.cdc.gov/traumaticbraininjury/index.html, https://www.cdc.gov/headsup/basics/concussion_whatis.html, https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy/symptoms-causes/syc-20370921, https://www.dispatch.com/news/20191124/student-athletes-still-reluctant-to-report-concussions-nationwide-childrens-study-finds, https://www.cnn.com/2019/10/15/health/concussion-high-school-sports-study/index.html, https://www.mlive.com/news/2019/11/what-parents-need-to-know-about-football-and-head-injuries.html, https://injuryprevention.bmj.com/content/24/3/180.full, https://www.espn.com/nfl/story/_/id/27372974/did-helmet-rule-actually-work-2018-how-change-2019, https://www.sportscasting.com/nfl-concussion-protocol-explained-how-does-it-work/, https://slate.com/culture/2015/12/the-truth-about-will-smiths-concussion-and-bennet-omalu.html, https://www.healthnewsreview.org/2018/01/sports-desks-drop-the-ball-on-big-concussion-story/, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Precautionary_principle, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harm_principle, https://www.washingtonpost.com/sports/2020/04/07/oklahoma-states-mike-gundy-says-his-team-needs-play-benefit-state-economy/.  Michael W. Collins et al., Adolescent Sports Concussion, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, 19(2): 247-269 (2008); Mark R. Lovell et al., Recover from Mild Concussion in High School Athletes, Journal of Neurosurgery, 98(2): 296-301 (2003). A hard …  Kevin M. Guskiewicz et al., Recurrent Concussion and Risk of Depression in Retired Professional Football Players, Medicine & Science in Sports & Leisure, 39(6): 903-909 (2007). utilitarianism meaning: 1. the system of thought that states that the best action or decision in a particular situation is….  Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020. "The greatest good for the greatest number" is the motto of the Utilitarian approach.  Mariana Brussoni et al., Risky Play and Children’s Safety: Balancing Priorities for Optimal Child Development, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 9:3134-3148 (2012).  Steve Almond, Is It Immoral to Watch the Super Bowl?, New York Times, Jan. 24, 2014. A 2012 study of 3,439 NFL players with five years or more in the NFL found that their neurogenerative mortality was three times that of the general U.S. population, and four times higher for two subcategories: Alzheimer’s disease, and Lou Gehrig’s Disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ALS). But few would consider it an acceptable course of action, let alone an ethical one. An example of rule utilitarianism in business is tiered pricing for a product or service for different types of customers.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Precautionary_principle.  At the end of the day, the jury still seems to be out on the question of whether you can go to a football game or watch one on television and still feel good about yourself for supporting a sport that seems to cause irreversible traumatic brain injuries.  Jesse Mez et al., Clinicopathological Evaluation of Chronic Traumatic Encepahalopathy in Players of American Football, JAMA, 318(4): 360-370 (2017). Youth football players average 240 head impacts per season. Daniel Goldberg observes that “there is also a crucial social and political question that is not simply a function of that empirical evidence base: to what risks is it acceptable to expose youths and adolescents?”. As with Bentham’s formulation, utilitarianism in business ethics is primarily concerned with outcomes rather than processes. ", John Stuart Mill had many years to absorb and reflect on Jeremy Bentham's thoughts on utilitarianism by the time he published his own work, Utilitarianism, in 1863. Explain. Similarly, monopolistic competition teaches one business to flourish at the expense of others. As such, it is the only moral framework that can justify military force or war. It is … Utilitarianism, in normative ethics, a tradition stemming from the late 18th- and 19th-century English philosophers and economists Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill according to which an action is right if it tends to promote happiness and wrong if it tends to produce the reverse of happiness. Pleasure, or happiness, is the only thing that has intrinsic value. If we delve deeper, we can see a lot of examples of utilitarianism in business and workplace.  Mayo Clinic, at https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy/symptoms-causes/syc-20370921. "Utility" is defined in various ways, … 1. And How Will It Change in 2019?, ESPN, Aug. 19, 2019, at https://www.espn.com/nfl/story/_/id/27372974/did-helmet-rule-actually-work-2018-how-change-2019. Act utilitarianism often demonstrates the concept that “the end justifies the means”—or it's worth it. Utilitarianism holds that the most ethical choice is the one that will produce the greatest good for the greatest number.  Ernest L. Abel, Football Increases the Risk for Lou Gehrig’s Disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Perceptual Motor Skills, 104(3): 1251-1254 (20007). Ramogi Huma, executive director of the National College Players Association, argued that schools should be required to fully inform [college] players about the risks of playing football now, including information about their susceptibilities to underlying health conditions.  Kathleen Bachynski & Daniel S. Goldberg, Time Out: NFL Conflicts of Interest with Public Health Efforts to Prevent TBI, Injury Prevention, at https://injuryprevention.bmj.com/content/24/3/180.full; Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020; Mark Fainaru-Wada & Steve Fainaru, League of Denial: The NFL, Concussions, and the Battle for Truth (2013). Although different varieties of utilitarianism admit different characterizations, the basic idea behind all of them is to in some sense maximize utility, which is often defined in terms of well-being or related concepts.  James P. Kelly et al., Concussion in Sports: Guidelines for the Prevention of Catastrophic Outcome, JAMA, 266(20): 2867-2869 (1991). There are many different ways to approach ethics.  Center for Disease Control, at https://www.cdc.gov/traumaticbraininjury/index.html. 30 videos - one minute each - relate recent scandals in the news and give ethical insights. In one study, use of newly-designed football helmets and safe tackling techniques eliminated concussions for 20 middle school aged players for an entire season. So, although utilitarianism is arguably the most reason-based approach to determining right and wrong, it has obvious limitations. An NFL player who plays 24 games increases the likelihood of premature death by 16%. New Yorker writer Ingfei Chen observed that Fisher-Price had been required to recall a collapsible crib that was associated with 32 infant deaths. We have an incomplete understanding of the extent or distribution of pathology required to produce neurological dysfunction or to distinguish diseased from healthy tissue, with the neuropathological changes reported in apparently asymptomatic individuals.”, Neuropsychologist Munro Cullum argues: “I worry the pendulum has swung too far. The goal of reducing personal harm while increasing happiness is something that every person pursues at some point in their life. Utilitarianism seems to require punishing the innocent in certain circumstances, such as these. In the early 1900s, Ideal utilitarianism was first used to demonstrate the belief that there’s more to good than is denoted by pleasure. Chen noted that “there is no such thing as an acceptably risky crib,” but contrasted it with sports like football where “hazards are part of their attraction.” She asked: “How much risk is too much?”.  Dave Bry, American Football is Too Dangerous, and It Should Be Abolished, The Guardian (UK), Jan. 4, 2016. > “Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility. Utilitarianism is an ethical framework for effective moral action. Utilitarianism, business ethics and the Ford Pinto case present a dilemma, as the theory appears to be one of moral strength and a good guideline for ethical business choice. Utilitarianism In Business Ethics 1685 Words7 Pages Utilitarianism is a teleological ethical theory based on the idea that an action is moral if it causes the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest …  The NFL has also changed rules to discourage helmet-to-helmet contact, and has instituted protocols for safely returning concussed players to the field. Most importantly, other studies seem to indicate that concussions may be more benign. According to research by neuroscientists, “There seems to be greater consequences if you’re getting your head hit when the brain is rapidly developing [below age 12].”. A public health professor has said that letting pre-teens play tackle football is “an abdication of moral responsibility for children’s welfare.”. Why or why not? The fourth element required to apply utilitarianism in business is aggregation, which is the notion that the wrongness or rightness of actions depends on their ability to average the benefits brought to all … What can scientists considering the morality of trading in Myanmar amber learn from the debate over “conflict minerals” in Africa?  Justin Ehrlich et al., Mortality Risk Factors Among National Football League Players: An Analysis Using Player Career Data, F1000Research 2019, 8:2022.  Ted Tatos, Playing Games with College Athletes’ Lives, The American Prospect, May 20, 2020. a. Players Hit Back, New York Times, Sept. 26, 2017. The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Investopedia receives compensation.  Dave Bry, American Football is Too Dangerous, and It Should Be Abolished, The Guardian (UK), Jan. 4, 2016. Pamela R. Sailors, Personal Foul: An Evaluation of the Moral Status of Football, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 42(2): 269-286 (2015). Bry’s answer is that only the football players are being paid to do this “for our entertainment.”. Examples of utilitarianism criticisms are outlined below: “Utilitarianism is not concerned with justice.” The term may also refer to pleasure or satisfaction that people derive from being somewhere. Do you see parallels between the debate as to whether to begin playing football again in the wake of the pandemic and the debate as to whether to abolish or reform football in light of the evidence on brain trauma? High school athletes are reluctant to report concussions. Ethics, Population Health Policy, and Sports-Related TBI, in Sociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions (Matt Ventresca & Mary McDonald eds, 2020). The main idea of utilitarian ethics is: secure the greatest good for the greatest numb… An Analysis of Youth Football Head Impact Data, Neurosurgery (Jan. 2020), available at https://doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyz563. If you apply Systematic Moral Analysis to the question of whether or not it is moral to continue to support and/or play football, do you get different results for different league categories and age groups?  Kevin M. Guskiewicz et al., Association between Recurrent Concussion and Late-Life Cognitive Impairment in Retired Professional Football Players, Neurosurgery 57(4): 719-726 (2005). A 2019 study of the brains of 223 football players with CTE and 43 players without CTE found that for each additional 2.6 years of play, the risk of developing CTE doubled. Examples of utilitarianism in the following topics: Personal ethics: four ethical approaches.  J.S. Is Getting Soft. Chen also points to the uncertainties of the science, noting: “For now, these complexities make certain questions about the disease unanswerable.  Rachel Grashow et al., Association of Concussion Symptoms with Testosterone levels and Erectile Dysfunction in Former Professional US-Style Football Players, JAMA Neurology, 2019: DOI: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2019.2664.  Sameer K. Deshpande et al, Association of Playing High School Football with Cognition and Mental Health Later in Life, JAMA Neurology, 74(8): 909-918 (2017). One such way is utilitarianism, or the belief that the most ethical … This is one of the limitations of utilitarianism. This would arguably produce the greatest good for the greatest number. Utilitarianism holds that what’s ethical (or moral) is whatever maximizes total happiness while minimizing total pain.  Eamon T. Campolettano et al., Development of a Concussion Risk Function for a Youth Population Using Heal Linear and Rotational Acceleration, Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 48(1): 92 DOI: 10.1007/s10439-019-02382-2. Utilitarianism would say that an action is right if it results in the happiness of the greatest number of people in a society or a group. Utilitarianism would favour a more coercive approach if this is more effective. How do the tau clumps relate to the clinical syndrome—do the lesions fully explain the mood and memory problems? Ethics, Population Health Policy, and Sports-Related TBI, in Sociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions (Matt Ventresca & Mary McDonald eds, 2020). 2. Utilitarianism In Business Ethics 1685 Words 7 Pages Utilitarianism is a teleological ethical theory based on the idea that an action is moral if it causes the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number of …  Other studies have involved skewed samples, including one where all the NFL players’ brains had been donated because of mental declines that the donors had suffered before their deaths.. Alan Schwarz et al., N.F.L.’s Flawed Concussion Research and Ties to Tobacco Industry, New York Times, March 24, 2016.  Kathleen Bachynski, Youth Football is a Moral Abdication, The Atlantic, Feb. 1, 2020. Business ethics involve following business principles that entail morality in leadership as well as in several other aspects of businesses. A study of former high school and college football players found that RHI exposure predicted later-life apathy, depression, executive dysfunction, and cognitive impairment. But it received both its name and its clearest statement in the writings of English philosophers Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) and John Stuart Mill (1806-1873). …  Michael Cunningham, Player Safety Takes Back Seat as NCAA Rushes to Allow Campus Workouts, Atlanta Journal-Constitution, May 22, 2020 (quoting Huma). What facts would you weigh in making the decision?  Dave Bry, American Football is Too Dangerous, and It Should Be Abolished, The Guardian (UK), Jan. 4, 2016. The Kachin Independence Army, which includes ethnic minorities who live in the northern Kachin and surrounding regions of Myanmar, has been in armed conflict with the Myanmar government for the restoration of minority ethnic groups’ rights. The theory asserts that there are two types of utilitarian … Utilitarianism and utility. The main principle of utilitarian moral theory, the principle of utility, states that the right action is the one that produces the most overall happiness. Utilitarianism is the most common kind of consequentialism, which is one of the three major branches of ethics. Myanmar amber is plentiful, high quality and contains inclusions within the resin.  Julian E. Bailes et al., Role of Subconcussion in Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Review, Journal of Neurosurgery, 119: 1235-1245 (2013); Breton M. Asken, Research Gaps and Controversies in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy: A Review, JAMA Neurology 74(10): 1255-1262 (2017); Philip H. Montenigro et al., Cumulative Head Impact Exposure Predicts Later-Life Depression, Apathy, Executive Dysfunction, and Cognitive Impairment in Former High School and College Players, Journal of Neurotraumua 34(2) (2017); Ann C. McKee et al., The Neuropathology of Sport, Acta Neuropathologica, 127: 29-51 (2014).