Sometimes, cyberstalking originates from other countries. Countries with a “u” belong to the United Nations. Many states have enacted laws outlawing cyberstalking and cyber harassment. However, in December 2010 the Scottish Parliament introduced a new offence of stalking as part of the Criminal Justice and Licensing (Scotland) Act 2010. Van Der Aa, S., & Kunst, M. (2009). Hong Kong has no specific anti-stalking legislation. The Law Fighting Against Domestic Violence 2004 has provisions prohibiting stalking in the context of a domestic relationship. The Council of Europe Treaty on Cybercrime, The Arab Center for Security & International Studies, Center for Tracking Internet Crimes and Services, International Association of Police Chiefs, International Centre for International Crime Prevention, International Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings, Transnational Crime and Corruption Center, United Nations International Drug Control Programme, Act on the Protection of Personal Information, Sophos ES1100 Email Security Appliance Anti Spam (H869)$49.95, LOT OF 2 Barracuda Spam Firewall 400 Firewall$100.0, Barracuda spam & Firewall 300 - posts but BIOS is locked (password) 2GB RAM#$23.3, Cryorig AM4 Upgrade Kit Type D for A Series Liquid Cooler$13.97, - Barracuda Spam & Virus Firewall 100$53.54, Software PC Block It The Ultimate Spam & Ad Eliminator 7 Utilities VINTAGE NEW$12.98, Spam Catcher 4.0 Pc New Sealed Box XP$11.61, Copyright 2012 CCMostWanted | All Rights Reserved |, Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA), Sophos ES1100 Email Security Appliance Anti Spam (H869), LOT OF 2 Barracuda Spam Firewall 400 Firewall, Barracuda spam & Firewall 300 - posts but BIOS is locked (password) 2GB RAM#, Cryorig AM4 Upgrade Kit Type D for A Series Liquid Cooler, Software PC Block It The Ultimate Spam & Ad Eliminator 7 Utilities VINTAGE NEW, Two Interesting German Desicions On The Internet Law, Cyber attacks will cause real world harm in next seven years, The Legal Community has Become Part of the Cyber Security Equation, “But Don’t Run Before You Can Walk,” says Global Digital Forensics Founder, WordPress vulnerability leaves millions of servers open to hacks, Cyber attacks to escalate over next decade, Kaspersky Lab Uncovers New Cyber Hit-n-Run Operation Called ‘Icefog’. Where a Kenyan petitioner’s application for asylum was denied, reversal is not warranted despite the petitioner’s assertion of eligibility for asylum on the basis of his Christian religion, his pol… Spain does not have an anti-stalking law and, as in many non-English speaking jurisdictions, there is no single Spanish word that captures the English concept of stalking. In addition, it is covered in the Violence Against Women Act and other federal acts. Most stalking laws require that the perpetrator make a credible threat of violence against the victim; others include threats against the victim's family; still others require only that the alleged stalker's conduct constitute an implied threat. Details about how stalking may be dealt with are included in the Modena report into stalking in Europe, available at: Stalking had been dealt with under a range of different laws until February 2013 when an amendment to the Indian Penal Code came into effect, specifically outlawing stalking in s354D. Criminal Code, 442bis. This act also includes provisions for non-harassment orders. Cyberstalking Legislation. C. Nothing; existing stalking laws can apply. Cyberstalking laws make behaviors such as these illegal. Details about how stalking may be dealt with are included in the Modena report into stalking in Europe, available at: Germany has had a civil anti-stalking law since 2002, and a criminal law since 2007. There has nonetheless been some academic interest in stalking. In some cases, federal stalking charges can be brought against offenders. Where we are aware of specific articles or reports discussing these issues, they have been included in the list below as references for professionals or victims in those countries. If you know of an active link to the legislation, please contact us. The particular language of Washington’s cyberstalking law states that a “person is guilty of cyberstalking if he or she, with intent to harass, intimidate, torment, or embarrass any other person … makes an electronic communication to … a third party … using any lewd, lascivious, indecent, or obscene words, images, or language, or suggesting the commission of any lewd or lascivious act; anonymously or … This act deals with harassment and threatening behaviour of various types, and includes a section prohibiting ‘unlawful stalking’. You should always report to your local law enforcement agency and the law enforcement agency of the cyberstalker if you know who the person is. 875 (c), it is a federal crime, punishable by up to five years in prison and a fine of up to $250,000, to transmit any communication in interstate or foreign commerce containing a threat to injure the person of another. If you know of anti-stalking legislation that is not listed on this page, or if the information we have is incorrect, please, Comprehensive discussions of the characteristics and status of European stalking laws are provided in the 2007, Anti-stalking and anti-harassment legislation by country. A report on Cyberstalking by Dr Antonio Chacon of the University of Granada is available here: http://www.ugr.es/~sevimeco/revistaeticanet/Numero1/Articulos/NUEVACARADEINTERNET.pdf (in Spanish), Additional information is available in the Manual for victims and helping professionals by searching for Spain. Although there is no comprehensive, nationwide data on the extent of cyberstalking in the United States, some ISPs compile statistics on the number and types of complaints of harassment and/or threats involving their subscribers, and individual law enforcement agencies have compiled helpful statistics. The New York Court of Appeals, for example, recently struck down one New York county’s cyberbullying law, saying it violated the right to freedom of speech. Cyber stalking statutes usually classify cyber stalking as a misdemeanor offense. Some discussion of both sides of this debate can be found here: www.justgovernancegroup.org/en/swaziland/pdf/swaziland_dispatch_3.pdf. Please note that some of these discussions are now out of date as some countries have since introduced legislation. Countries with a “c” belong to the Council of Europe. Countries with a “v” have been invited to join NATO. The Guernsey law is identical in content to the UK Protection from Harassment Act 1997, although the numbering is slightly different: http://www.guernseylegalresources.gg/ccm/legal-resources/laws/crime-and-criminal-justice/protection-from-harassment-bailiwick-of-guernsey-law-2005.en. However, implementation of this law is slow and problematic. Rejected Stalkers: This type of stalker is motivated to pursue their victim in attempt to reverse what they perceive as a wrongful set of circumstances causing a prior divorce, separation or termination of a relationship. The text of the Act can be found here: www.info.gov.za/view/DownloadFileAction?id=156361. Details about how stalking may be dealt with are included in the Modena report into stalking in Europe, available at: There is currently no anti-stalking law in France. Almost 1.5 million people in the United States alone suffer from cyberstalking at least once every single year. Protection from Domestic Violence Bill 2010 (stalking implicitly included in definition of ‘psychological and emotional abuse’). (available free online), http://www.nzlii.org/nz/legis/consol_act/ha1997129/, Protection from Harassment Act 1997, s13 Corresponding Provision for Northern Ireland, http://www.bailii.org/uk/legis/num_act/1997/ukpga_19970040_en_1.html#pb3-l1g13. However, the Legal Assistance Centre in Windhoek has produced a document outlining other laws that may be relevant to stalking in that country. International law emphasizes a supranational concept related to cybercrime. Dr. Sameer Hinduja was the perfect keynote speaker for Auburn University’s 2016 International Anti-bullying Summit. This can be downloaded from. If you are not sure what type of order applies to your situation, see Find out if you're eligible for an abuse prevention order. California enjoys the country’s strictest computer and Internet harassment statutes. If your country is not listed, it is because we could find no reference to stalking in any legislation. I keep recieveing an email and I know it's bogus! The law exists within a wider section discussing ‘Assault or criminal force to woman with intent to outrage her modesty’ and only applies to men stalking women. Naomi Harlin Goodno I. For example, the state of Massachusetts has passed a law that prohibits bullying on school grounds or at a school sponsored event. The answer to that depends on which country you’re in. Courtesy of Ms Namita Malik, ITM University. Some information is provided at: http://www.southasianrights.org/?p=2056 (24 November 2010), and; http://www.southasianrights.org/?p=2316 (27 January 2011). Laws governing stalking, harassment, and slander, as well as specific “cyberstalking” laws, vary by state, and might include a series of acts that might not be considered illegal under other circumstances. Poland introduced a stalking law on 6th June 2011. California enjoys the country’s strictest computer and Internet harassment statutes. (subscription required), Courtesy of Dr Anne Groenen, Luevens Instituut Voor Criminolgie, K.U. The future of the legislation is unclear given that the bill was drafted in 2003 and has been in committees since that time. you can make a report to your local police, and see if they can do to help you. It may also include monitoring, identity theft, threats, vandalism, solicitation for sex, or gathering information that may be used to threaten, embarrass or harass. International Cyber Laws and Legislation. This page contains the reference for and, where available, a link to the anti-stalking legislation in each jurisdiction where we know relevant legislation exists. The Belgian police provide a comprehensive discussion of the law and how it is applied at: http://www.polfed-fedpol.be/crim/crim_fccu_stalking_nl.php#_Wetgeving_en_juridische_middelen (in Dutch or French). Details about how stalking may be dealt with are included in the Modena report into stalking in Europe, available at: stalking.medlegmo.unimo.it/RAPPORTO_versione_finale_011007.pdf. Some media discussion (in English) in available from:Â, www.thelocal.se/36482/20111002/ and www.thelocal.se/37638/20111129/. The Prevalence of Stalking in The Netherlands. The Swaziland government has been debating the Sexual Offences and Domestic Violence Bill throughout 2010 and it had not been enacted by the end of 2011. Through Internet or social media, people or … Slander, harassment, and anti-stalking legislation laws govern cyberstalking to some degree. The law states the actions must be intentional. The Protection from Domestic Violence Bill 2010 was approved by the Legislative Assembly in September 2010. It may involve any number of incidents including threats, libel, defamation, sexual harassment, or other actions in which to control, influence, or intimidate their target. The Act is available from: webapps01.un.org/vawdatabase/uploads/Domestic%20Violence%20Act.pdf. Cyberbullying is the term used to describe any form of bullying that makes use of technology to deliberately upset or threaten a person. (2011). It should be noted that a 2008 UNHCR discussion paper suggested that police enforcement of domestic violence and related laws (such as the above Act) is ‘lax’ (www.unhcr.org/refworld/publisher,IRBC,,TTO,49b92b211e,0.html). harassment/cyber stalking and what demographic characteristics are associated with an increased risk of victimization (Reyns, Henson, & Fisher, 2011), and how the experience of cyber stalking differs from the experiences of traditional forms of stalking behavior (Sheridan & Grant, 2007). (1) travels in interstate or foreign commerce or is present within the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States, or enters or leaves Indian country, with the intent to kill, injure, harass, intimidate, or place under surveillance with intent to kill, injure, harass, or intimidate another person, and in the course of, or as a … practically there is no an International OFFICIAL LAWS Against a cyber stalking. Although the act uses the word ‘harassment’, subsequent guidelines for magistrates’ court staff include stalking as a type of domestic violence and the act allows for the imposition of a protection order to prevent ex-intimate stalking behaviour. Reporting to other countries may seem prohibitively difficult, but it isn't. Cyberstalking is punishable by up to five years in prison and a fine of $250,000. Note that the above link has the old version of the Act with a link to legislation.gov.uk where the amendments can be viewed. Cyberstalking is a type of online harassment that involves using electronic means to stalk a victim, and generally refers to a pattern of threatening or malicious behaviors. The phenomenon of cyber-stalking and on-line harassment looks set to be the focus of the next Internet-related moral panic. If you know of a more up to date version of the Code in Norwegian, we would appreciate you contacting us with a link. ... Law Reporter. Cyberbullying and cyberstalking are relatively new crimes, and the laws dealing with these crimes are still being crafted, drafted, and revised. INTERNATIONAL REPORTING. http://webapps01.un.org/vawdatabase/searchDetail.action?measureId=22936&baseHREF=country&baseHREFId=668. A 2010 Taipei media report on the issue is available here: www.taipeitimes.com/News/editorials/archives/2010/09/11/2003482573. The law on cyberstalking. Brief details are available from:Â, www.ncvc.org/src/main.aspx?dbID=DB_NSAM2008739#AT, AustraliaAustralian Capital Territory: Crimes Act 1900 s35 Stalking http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/act/consol_act/ca190082/s35.html, New South Wales: Crimes (Domestic and Personal Violence) Act 2007 s13 Stalking or intimidation with intent to cause fear of physical or mental harmhttp://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nsw/consol_act/capva2007347/s13.html, Northern Territory: Criminal Code s189 Unlawful Stalkinghttp://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nt/consol_act/cc94/s189.html, Queensland: Criminal Code 1899 s359A-F Unlawful stalkinghttp://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/qld/consol_act/cc189994/s359a.html, South Australia: Criminal Law Consolidation Act 1935 s19AA Unlawful stalkinghttp://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/sa/consol_act/clca1935262/s19aa.html, Tasmania: Criminal Code Act 1924 Schedule 1 s192 Stalkinghttp://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/tas/consol_act/cca1924115/sch1.html, Victoria: Crimes Act 1958 s21A Stalkinghttp://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/vic/consol_act/ca195882/s21a.html, Western Australia: Criminal Code Act 1913 s338D-E Stalkinghttp://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/wa/consol_act/ccaca1913252/notes.html#appendixa. 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